A wide literature review has been developed and delivered to the European Commission on December 29 2017 by K&I in the framework of the FIT4RRI (Fostering Improved Training tools For Responsible Research and Innovation) project. The Literature Review deals with, on the one hand, the transformations affecting science and, on the other hand, the Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) approach, both in theoretical and in practical terms, thus providing a map of critical RRI-related issues challenging research organisations. The final part of the document is devoted to an interpretation of the main results of the literature review and the identification of orientations for the experiments to be carried out under WP3.